How Can You Start Home Composting & Help The Environment
India is generating a staggering 1.50 lakh metric tonne (MT) of solid waste every day. The mountain of waste in landfill sites is a cause of concern as it affects public health, the environment, and the economy of the country.
According to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), metropolitan cities like Mumbai and Delhi generate about 11,000 and 8,700 tonnes per day of solid waste respectively. It is equal to the waste generated by the other 8 metropolitan cities. The urban population is one of the major reasons behind waste generation in these cities.
The waste management experts stress that managing waste at the source is the first step towards effective waste management. And making compost at home is the best practice which must be followed by every household.
Science of Composting
Home Composting is one of the best ways to turn organic household waste into compost containing valuable nutrients that can be used for improving the quality of soil, gardening, and growing fruits and vegetables.
There are 3 steps stages involved in the composting process. Find out what they are below:
When you collect waste in a bin or a bucket, the natural microorganisms begin to act on the waste in a couple of days. It continues to break down the waste into the simplest parts, releasing heat in the process and thus increasing the temperature. This is the first stage of composting.
In the next stage, microbes thrive in the increased temperature and further break the complex carbohydrates, fats, protein, and other elements present. The second stage lasts for a few days to many months. Aeration is required in this stage so that microbes can use oxygen to break down the waste.
In the final third stage, the compounds are consumed by the microbes of the second stage. Thus, the temperature again reduces and the remaining organic matter is converted into usable humus.
This is how composting works. The advantage of making compost at home is thus two-fold: fertilizer for soil and protecting the environment from the menace of waste.
What Can You Compost?
According to reports, a large amount of food is wasted in India. You can use food waste, leftovers, fruits, and vegetable peel for composting. It is recommended to use both dry and wet waste for making compost at home. Wet waste includes fruits, vegetables, tea leaves, eggshells, flowers, meat, etc. Dry waste includes carbon sources such as paper bags, newspapers, egg cartons, leaves, coffee grounds, sawdust, twigs, etc.
Add a proper ratio of dry and wet waste. When waste fills the bin, finish the layering with dry waste as it will attract no pest or insects.
How to Start Home Composting?
There are different home composting techniques. You can choose the best method as per your convenience.
At first, you can decide whether you want to do home composting in the indoor space or outdoor area.
If you are living in apartments, composting in the indoor space is easy. You can use a balcony or a small area inside the home. All you will need is a plastic bin or a bucket to fill it with household waste as it takes very little space. You can follow the vermicomposting method which uses worms to degrade the food waste. These worms do not move around and are therefore safe to keep inside the plastic or compost bins. Make sure that you do not add any waste that attracts pests and insects.
An outdoor area or garden can be used to do composting as well. You can use a compost bin and fill it with waste. Make some holes in the bin so that the aeration process can take place. Layer it with dry and wet waste as discussed before. Use a lid and leave it for a few months. The result is rich fertilizer, soil conditioner and it can even prevent soil from pest attacks.
Often, people find the composting process to be time-consuming and others can’t stand the foul odor coming from it. Organica Biotech’s SoilMate solves these challenges. The rapidly acting bacteria degrade all kinds of waste in the compost. At the same time, it suppresses foul odor and speeds up the composting process. And finally, you get nutrient-enriched fertilizer for the soil. You can use SoilMate for home composting which in turn can help the environment and human health from the accumulation of waste outside and the harmful consequences of it.