Untreated sewage is one of the major 21st-century challenges faced by the world today. Several factors such as population growth, rapid urbanization, industrialization and lack of innovative sewage water treatment solutions have led to an increase in sewage volume globally.
An extensive amount of sewage water is generated every day from households, industries and agriculture. Raw sewage contains harmful components such as chemicals, dangerous pathogens, toxin substances, debris and heavy metals. Therefore, when the sewage is released into the environment without proper sewage water treatment, it causes water pollution. Consequently, it threatens to impact human health and the environment