Understanding The Key Processes Involved In Sewage Treatment
Sewage treatment refers to the process by which pollutants, contaminants, and harmful microorganisms are removed from the sewage.
In India, more than a million liters of sewage is generated in urban areas from manufacturing plants, residential areas, commercial sites, and institutions like hospitals. The sewage waste constitutes organic waste, solid waste, chemicals, toxic substances, and other harmful elements.
Therefore, sewage treatment is necessary to release this water into the environment. It must reach the standards set by authorities and the safe levels introduced by the environment agency. Lack of sewage treatment can lead to pollution of water bodies, diseases in humans and other living organisms, and affects the environment.
Sewage Treatment Process
Physical, biological, and chemical are the key processes in sewage treatment which are classified into Primary, Secondary and Tertiary treatment respectively.
Primary Treatment – As the sewage enters a sewage treatment plant or a system, the solid waste like rags, tree branches, sticks pass through a screen. This is known as screening. The suspended solids sink to the bottom and are collected in the sedimentation tank to be removed later.
Secondary Treatment – The sewage still contains organic waste which is treated in this stage. The biological treatment is one of the essential processes where natural micro-organisms break down organic waste and clear up all kinds of pollutants. Usually, sewage water is pure enough to be released into the environment after secondary sewage treatment.
But, depending upon conditions like reuse of water, the kind of waste generated, location, and other environmental objectives, tertiary treatment may be required.
Tertiary Treatment – Chemical process like chlorination is used to kill the pathogens in water. Excess chlorine is removed through the De-chlorination process.
As you can understand the biological treatment of sewage is the key process among the three treatment processes.
Biological Sewage Treatment
There are two types of biological sewage treatment; Anaerobic Process and Aerobic Process.
Anaerobic Process of Sewage Treatment – In this process, the sewage in the plant is treated with microbes in the absence of air. The water-borne microbes convert the organic waste matter into by-products like methane, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide. In large sewage treatment facilities, the generation of methane is used as an energy source to run the plants or for heating purposes.
Aerobic Process of Sewage Treatment – This process of sewage treatment is carried out in the presence of oxygen. The microbes use oxygen to break down organic waste. To achieve this goal, mechanical aeration is used to supply air continuously. The microbial community acts on the waste releasing carbon dioxide, water, and nitrogen.
Due to the rapidly increasing population in India, a huge volume of sewage is generated from households and industries. The sewage treatment plants are not equipped enough to deal with such a large amount of sewage waste. There are only a limited number of sewage plants across the country. In many urban and rural areas, treatment plants are malfunctioning putting the human population and environment at risk.
Also, the natural and water-borne microorganisms are not efficient enough to handle the sheer volume of sewage waste generated every day in India. Therefore, nature requires the help of innovative solutions to make the sewage treatment process a success.
Organica Biotech’s Cleanmaxx STP is one of the best sewage treatment solutions available in the market. The highly adaptable and tenacious community of microbes are capable to degrade high organic loads. It prevents the growth of harmful pathogens, eliminates odor issues, and minimizes sludge production. It powers the biological sewage treatment process and maximizes the productivity of treatment plants, protecting human health and the environment from pollution caused by sewage.