For a country like India which is looking to revolutionise its sewage wastewater management systems the gaps in the functionality of current treatment systems are very high. The CPCB’s 2015 census report states that out of India’s 816 STP’s , only about 522 are fully operational and do not meet their entire capacity of treating sewage.
The city of Cape Town has recently introduced level five water restrictions limiting the use of water by individuals at a bare minimum sustainance level of 80 litres per day. The city has set 500 million litres of water as the limit for overall water consumption. Industries have been asked to minimise there municipal water usage to reduce the pressure on available resources.
The general awareness regarding microbes has greatly increased over the past few decades. However, little is known about their distant cousins, ‘Protozoans and Metazoans’, more popularly known as ‘higher life forms’. Both these categories of organisms are of great value to industrial effluent treatment. Microorganisms constitute 95% of population in an ideal activated sludge ,of which 4 % of this microbial population consist of higher life forms. Although these higher life forms contribute very little to the removal of organic nutrients, their presence however greatly enhances the clarity of the water and provides an indication of effluent condition (Eg. Toxicity,organic load, dissolved oxygen etc.).