For a country like India which is looking to revolutionise its sewage wastewater management systems the gaps in the functionality of current treatment systems are very high. The CPCB’s 2015 census report states that out of India’s 816 STP’s , only about 522 are fully operational and do not meet their entire capacity of treating sewage.
Wastewater treatment plants are used across the world to treat the extensive amount of wastewater generated every day. The main aim is to protect the public from health hazards caused due to untreated wastewater. Moreover, wastewater treatment is essential to prevent environmental pollution. Biological wastewater treatment is the most important process at any treatment facility where living microorganisms play a vital role in degrading organic waste. Among the various components of the system, MLSS is an operational control parameter that needs to be optimized for best treatment results.
The general awareness regarding microbes has greatly increased over the past few decades. However, little is known about their distant cousins, ‘Protozoans and Metazoans’, more popularly known as ‘higher life forms’. Both these categories of organisms are of great value to industrial effluent treatment. Microorganisms constitute 95% of population in an ideal activated sludge ,of which 4 % of this microbial population consist of higher life forms. Although these higher life forms contribute very little to the removal of organic nutrients, their presence however greatly enhances the clarity of the water and provides an indication of effluent condition (Eg. Toxicity,organic load, dissolved oxygen etc.).
Mumbai is the city of glitz and glamor; of highrises and plush hotels and housing complexes, of bars and exotic restaurants, of soaring real estate values, of gilded star homes at Bandra and Juhu, of swanky cars and malls and international brands etc. But underneath all that jazz, Mumbai grapples with a giant problem- waste management. The city’s faring poorly when it comes to handling proper, hygienic disposal of human and kitchen refuse. Any number of factors might be responsible for this.
In recent times, due to the limited availability of water resources and rapid industrialization, it is mandatory to preserve water quality. Ammonia is one of the most common pollutant observed in industrial and agricultural effluents. It is used as a bleaching agent in chemical industries and also in production of fertilizers, plastics and explosives. In effluents ammonia exists in equilibrium with ammonium ions. The concentration of ammonia gas increases with increase in pH and temperature. At neutral pH most of the ammonia exists as dissolved ammonium ions, but as the pH increases to 12, both ammonium ions and gaseous ammonia coexist in the effluent. The estimation of Ammonia in effluents is generally carried out by Nessler’s method and is determined as Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N) in ppm.