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The agricultural system at any location across the world is strongly influenced by the climate. The farming communities generally adapt and deal with local weather conditions by following certain farming practices, adopting infrastructure and using their experience. However, the problem of climate change and its consequences are expected to severely impact agriculture and threaten to disrupt the established systems.

According to estimates, approximately 60 million tonnes of garbage is generated every day in India. To make matters worse, 75% of the garbage, which is around 45 million tonnes, is disposed off in the landfills without proper treatment. If the existing waste generation rate continues, experts believe that India will need close to 66,000 hectares of land, for dumping waste. Moreover, improper solid waste disposal can cause pollution, spread diseases and pose risk to public health. Thus, the current situation is quite alarming and better solid waste management practices and innovative solutions are the need of the hour.

Globally, billions of people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities even today, and it is affecting the health, economy, environment and communities in different ways. In developing countries of the world, the poor sanitation situation leads to public health hazards like diarrhoea, cholera and dysentery resulting in deaths, especially of children, every year. It costs billions and affects economic growth. The open defecation practices pollute the environment and aesthetic beauty of the place.

Water contamination is one of the major challenges worldwide. Several factors such as rapid urbanization, industrialization, population explosion and changing lifestyle habits have contributed to the pollution of water bodies and health problems to humans. In this context, wastewater treatment is of great importance to prevent water contamination and protect the environment.

Aquaculture is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world today. For a large population living in different parts of the world, fish is the main source of nutrient, and thus it is integral to the dietary culture. However, different kinds of disease outbreaks and poor water quality have been plaguing aquaculture and affecting its production rate. Although conventional solutions like antibiotics are used, there is a growing concern about their extensive use and related adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystem and aquatic living beings.

Today, modern agriculture is playing a central role in solving some of the biggest challenges faced by humanity. First, the world population is increasing at an alarming rate, and it is predicted to reach approximately 9 billion people by 2050. The agriculture sector is expected to meet the growing food demand and accomplish food security goals.

Wastewater treatment plants are used across the world to treat the extensive amount of wastewater generated every day. The main aim is to protect the public from health hazards caused due to untreated wastewater. Moreover, wastewater treatment is essential to prevent environmental pollution. Biological wastewater treatment is the most important process at any treatment facility where living microorganisms play a vital role in degrading organic waste. Among the various components of the system, MLSS is an operational control parameter that needs to be optimized for best treatment results.

India is one of the most populous countries in the world with high population densities in rural areas and urban cities. As a result, human waste treatment and management have become one of the major challenges faced by the country today. According to reports, less than 30% of the population in India have access to safe sanitation facilities. The majority of households in rural areas practice open defecation, which threatens to cause various diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, hepatitis, dysentery etc.

The rapidly growing population, urbanization and changing consumption patterns in India has led to the generation of vast quantities of solid waste. As per the Swachhata Sandesh Newsletter released by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in January 2020, 1,47,613 metric tonnes of solid waste is generated per day, from 84,475 wards across India. The existing process for collection, transportation and disposal, as part of municipal solid waste management, is under undue stress. Thus, improper solid waste disposal poses a great risk to public health.