With a billion-plus population, water management is a far greater challenge in India compared to other countries in the world. According to a NITI Aayog report, 75% of households do not have access to clean drinking water, and 84% of households in rural areas lack safe piped water for use. Thus, water conservation measures are essential to ensure water is available in the future. One of the ways to achieve this objective is to use waterless urinals.
According to ENVIS Centre on Hygiene, Sanitation, Sewage Treatment Systems and Technology, a conventional urinal in India requires an average of 3-5 litres of water per flush. It means a large portion of water supplied to households, commercial establishments and industries is flushed down the toilet. Waterless urinals can help to save approximately 56,800 litres to 1,70,000 litres of water per urinal every year.
With a rapidly growing population and corresponding food demand, expansion and intensification of aquaculture is happening in Bangladesh at a fast rate. The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is contributing to the nation’s economy, assisting in poverty alleviation and supplying necessary nutrition.
However, a vast quantity of waste generation in aquaculture, extensive use of antibiotic and chemicals have become a major cause of concern for the environment as well as public health. Thus, sustainable aquaculture solutions are urgently required to increase the output without compromising the quality and the environment. Moreover, the latest innovations should reduce the aquaculture dependence on water and land and provide socio-economic support to the farming community. Biofloc technology in Bangladesh has emerged as a promising solution that can help in achieving sustainability and other objectives.
Waste is one of the biggest challenges faced by the world today, and the future of solid waste management depends on every single individual. Although government authorities, leaders of the nations, municipalities and local communities are working hard to manage the extensive amount of waste generated every day, a radical change in mindset at an individual level is the need of the hour.
On a broader note, improper waste disposal and management, which includes public littering, lack of waste segregation, uncontrolled collection and disposal and poor waste treatment practices, have greatly impacted the world. According to a World Bank report, 2.01 billion tons of municipal solid waste is generated every year across the world, out of which it is estimated that 33% is not managed properly, impacting the environment.
Muttukadu, a small town located on the outskirts of Chennai, is well-known for the lush greenery surrounding the place, the backwaters and the serene environment. However, the region has lost its sheen and the diverse flora and fauna in recent times due to growing algal blooms in Muttukadu Estuary.
Algal blooms are not a new phenomenon as you might have seen the green algae covering large areas of coastlines, lakes, ponds, reservoirs etc. However, the exponential growth of harmful algal blooms in freshwater is a matter of grave concern for aquatic organisms, the environment, as well as public health. Therefore, urgent solutions are required to prevent algal bloom.
The agricultural system at any location across the world is strongly influenced by the climate. The farming communities generally adapt and deal with local weather conditions by following certain farming practices, adopting infrastructure and using their experience. However, the problem of climate change and its consequences are expected to severely impact agriculture and threaten to disrupt the established systems.
According to estimates, approximately 60 million tonnes of garbage is generated every day in India. To make matters worse, 75% of the garbage, which is around 45 million tonnes, is disposed off in the landfills without proper treatment. If the existing waste generation rate continues, experts believe that India will need close to 66,000 hectares of land, for dumping waste. Moreover, improper solid waste disposal can cause pollution, spread diseases and pose risk to public health. Thus, the current situation is quite alarming and better solid waste management practices and innovative solutions are the need of the hour.
Today, modern agriculture is playing a central role in solving some of the biggest challenges faced by humanity. First, the world population is increasing at an alarming rate, and it is predicted to reach approximately 9 billion people by 2050. The agriculture sector is expected to meet the growing food demand and accomplish food security goals.
Wastewater treatment plants are used across the world to treat the extensive amount of wastewater generated every day. The main aim is to protect the public from health hazards caused due to untreated wastewater. Moreover, wastewater treatment is essential to prevent environmental pollution. Biological wastewater treatment is the most important process at any treatment facility where living microorganisms play a vital role in degrading organic waste. Among the various components of the system, MLSS is an operational control parameter that needs to be optimized for best treatment results.
India is one of the most populous countries in the world with high population densities in rural areas and urban cities. As a result, human waste treatment and management have become one of the major challenges faced by the country today. According to reports, less than 30% of the population in India have access to safe sanitation facilities. The majority of households in rural areas practice open defecation, which threatens to cause various diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, hepatitis, dysentery etc.
The population explosion has always been a major challenge in India. The rapid urbanization, better lifestyle and the increased food consumption pattern today has led to a rise in food demand in the country. Therefore, increased food output is essential to maintain food security and meet consumer demand. It was precisely for this reason why the Green Revolution was introduced in the 1960s. Farming saw the adoption of modern methods, technology and extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, to boost crop yield. However, such intensification of agriculture led to the loss of soil fertility, pollution of soil, water and air and adversely affected human health and the environment.