Phytoplankton is an essential constituent of the marine food chain and comprises 40% of the total fixed global primary productivity. Out of 5,000 species of marine phytoplankton in the world, 7% are responsible for algal blooms, including diatoms, dinoflagellates, raphidophytes, prymnesiophytes and silicoflagellates. Out of 7% algal bloom, 2% of phytoplankton species are toxic, and dinoflagellates contribute 75%. The occurrence of blooms is spontaneous; their growth and persistence are a combination of physical, chemical and biological factors interacting in unpredictable ways.
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