The word ‘bacteria’ generally is always coupled with a negative connotation in day to day life. This is because bacteria are mostly associated with diseases that afflict us. However, there exist a plethora of bacteria which are highly beneficial and crucial to the existence of mankind. . We have failed to realize their significance, their positive impact on our life and their contribution towards sustaining life on earth since the beginning of time.
Sanitation is a vital part of human everyday life. We need to perform our bodily ablutions as a matter of routine, physiological processes to eliminate the waste from our body. Urine and feces are the end products of our metabolism. It is, however, also very important to properly dispose off this bodily waste, for both aesthetic and health reasons. Properly disposed off feces and urine ensure a clean, odourless environment, as well as prevent diseases due to microbes, like fecal coliform bacteria.
Aquaculture is the breeding, raring and harvesting of aquatic animals in all type of aquatic environments including ponds, lakes and oceans. The reported output from global aquaculture in 2014 supplied over half of the total quantity of fish and shellfish consumed by humans.
People across the world are debating the existence and effects of climate change, even when its impact is already evident. The use of renewable energy is the most logical solution to tackle climate change. Anaerobic digestion and biogas generation both provide us the platform to tackle multiple environmental issues such as solid waste management, carbon emission, and energy crisis, and also contribute in lowering the adverse impact of climate change.
Access to clean toilets, with running water, electricity and sewerage connection, is a major issue for women and girls in India. Despite the fact that urination and defecation are basic bodily functions, 70% of households in rural and urban slums lack access to functioning toilets. 60% of the country still defecates in the open, with consequences ranging from polluted water bringing fatal infections to the women and children using it, to women carrying extreme risk of being sexually assaulted.
In a country where women have reach the frontiers of space, basic necessities such as access to clean drinking water, toilets, basic education, fundamental knowledge and products for feminine hygiene are still unavailable to women in rural areas.
The young carp was caught in a pond of fish farm where they breed
There has been tremendous growth of aquaculture industry in recent times. Though, such industries enable controlled growth and close monitoring of the growth, they require lot of financial inputs for procurement of good quality seed, maintenance of growth conditions and disease control & management. The lators adds most to the total expenditure of the industry.
Animal husbandry has evolved since the dawn of human civilization. Rising demand for products and byproducts from animal husbandry is owed to the exponential increase in the global population. In order to meet these demands, animal husbandry professional have resorted to various practices to increase the yield. Just like us, animal health is governed not only by the feed that is provided to them, but also internally, by the millions of tiny microscopic beings residing within their gut.
The rampant use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers has brought about a decline in soil fertility and crop health across the world. Crops today are more prone to diseases, deficiencies etc. This realization has marked the advent of organic farming globally. Organic foods boast of being residue free and are much costlier than locally available produce. But is organic farming really a new age concept?
In recent times, due to the limited availability of water resources and rapid industrialization, it is mandatory to preserve water quality. Ammonia is one of the most common pollutant observed in industrial and agricultural effluents. It is used as a bleaching agent in chemical industries and also in production of fertilizers, plastics and explosives. In effluents ammonia exists in equilibrium with ammonium ions. The concentration of ammonia gas increases with increase in pH and temperature. At neutral pH most of the ammonia exists as dissolved ammonium ions, but as the pH increases to 12, both ammonium ions and gaseous ammonia coexist in the effluent. The estimation of Ammonia in effluents is generally carried out by Nessler’s method and is determined as Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N) in ppm.