Biodiversity – A Gift Of Nature

Rapid scale urbanization in a population of 1.34 billion Indians, growing exponentially at a growth rate of 1.2% has surmounted the issue of untreated sewage rapidly degrading the life cycle of flora and fauna. Untreated sewage surmounts to approximately 75% of the surface water contamination in the country. When sewage enters a lake or stream, microorganisms begin to decompose the organic materials. This impacts both the ecology and economy as well as imposes severe health risks. Sewage-contaminated water causes eutrophication, which is the increase in concentration of chemical elements required for life, thus decreasing the amount of dissolved oxygen necessary for aquatic life. Sewage pollution has been attributed to causing gastrointestinal disorders in humans like Giardiasis, Amoebic Dysentery and Cholera. Moreover debris associated with sewage hampers the aesthetic value of the environment.

The need to offer quality feed and fuel has become a burning issue in the world as we know it. Climate change, pollution and energy crisis are few of the issues which are the major issues which the human race will have to deal in the upcoming years. Mankind has gradually infringed upon Nature’s reservoirs due to the ever increasing human population. Pollution of the world’s natural resources due to industrialization has already brought us on the verge of catastrophic consequences. Therefore, sustainable development is the key issue that global policy makers need to address . Finding innovative strategies to accommodate sustainable development along with safe disposal of generated waste is the need of the hour.

The use of anti-biotics in the aquaculture industry has been widespread and beneficial- but it has now progressed to overuse. Injudicious use of antibiotics in aquatic animals has led to antibiotic resistance. This was specially felt in the shrimp culture industry, where massive increase in production, massive overcrowding and unrestricted use of antibiotics led to emergence of anti-biotic resistant bacteria. This has, in turn, led to production crashes and losses to farmers engaged in aquaculture.

एके काळी भारताला “सोने कि चिडिया ” म्हटले जाई. असा आपला गौरवाने उल्लेख केला जात असे कारण भारत आधी पासून कृषी प्रधान प्रदेश आहे. संपन्नतेचे, ऐश्वर्याचे प्रतीक म्हणजे सोने. भारतातील संपूर्ण शेती पद्धती वैदिक (नैसर्गिक) ज्ञानाचा वापर करून हवामानाच्या शक्यतांचा अभ्यास करून, आणि देशी बियाणांचा वापर करीत पर्यावरण संतुलित राहील अशा पद्धतीने केली जात होती. परंतु दिवसेंदिवस वाढणाऱ्या लोकसंख्येला लागणाऱ्या अन्नामुळे देशामध्ये अन्नधान्याची समस्या उभी राहिली त्यामुळे हरित क्रांती (१९६७ – १९७८ ) मुळे दरडोई उत्पादकता वाढवण्यात आली आणि हायब्रीड -संकरित बियाणे जन्माला आले आणि सिंचनाच्या सोयी यामधून शेतीची क्रांती झाली. परंतु हायब्रीड बियाण्यांमुळे कीटकनाशकांची गरज आणि रासायनिक खतांची गरज जास्त पडू लागली. औषधांच्या आणि रासायानांच्या अती वापरामुळे पर्यावरणाचे संतुलन बिघडले. जमिनीतील सूक्ष्म-जैविक घटकांचा नाश झाल्याने जमिनी नापीक होऊ लागल्या. पर्यायाने खतांची कार्यक्षमता कमी झाली. या जमिनींच्या कमी कार्यक्षमतेमुळे रासायनिक खतांचा पुन्हा वापर खूपच वाढला आणि ह्या अश्या चक्रव्यूहात अजूनपण अधुनिक शेती अडकलेली आहे.

The general awareness regarding microbes has greatly increased over the past few decades. However, little is known about their distant cousins, ‘Protozoans and Metazoans’, more popularly known as ‘higher life forms’. Both these categories of organisms are of great value to industrial effluent treatment. Microorganisms constitute 95% of population in an ideal activated sludge ,of which 4 % of this microbial population consist of higher life forms. Although these higher life forms contribute very little to the removal of organic nutrients, their presence however greatly enhances the clarity of the water and provides an indication of effluent condition (Eg. Toxicity,organic load, dissolved oxygen etc.).

Mumbai is the city of glitz and glamor; of highrises and plush hotels and housing complexes, of bars and exotic restaurants, of soaring real estate values, of gilded star homes at Bandra and Juhu, of swanky cars and malls and international brands etc. But underneath all that jazz, Mumbai grapples with a giant problem- waste management. The city’s faring poorly when it comes to handling proper, hygienic disposal of human and kitchen refuse. Any number of factors might be responsible for this.