Wastewater treatment plants are used across the world to treat the extensive amount of wastewater generated every day. The main aim is to protect the public from health hazards caused due to untreated wastewater. Moreover, wastewater treatment is essential to prevent environmental pollution. Biological wastewater treatment is the most important process at any treatment facility where living microorganisms play a vital role in degrading organic waste. Among the various components of the system, MLSS is an operational control parameter that needs to be optimized for best treatment results.
India is one of the most populous countries in the world with high population densities in rural areas and urban cities. As a result, human waste treatment and management have become one of the major challenges faced by the country today. According to reports, less than 30% of the population in India have access to safe sanitation facilities. The majority of households in rural areas practice open defecation, which threatens to cause various diseases such as diarrhoea, cholera, hepatitis, dysentery etc.
The population explosion has always been a major challenge in India. The rapid urbanization, better lifestyle and the increased food consumption pattern today has led to a rise in food demand in the country. Therefore, increased food output is essential to maintain food security and meet consumer demand. It was precisely for this reason why the Green Revolution was introduced in the 1960s. Farming saw the adoption of modern methods, technology and extensive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, to boost crop yield. However, such intensification of agriculture led to the loss of soil fertility, pollution of soil, water and air and adversely affected human health and the environment.
The rapidly growing population, urbanization and changing consumption patterns in India has led to the generation of vast quantities of solid waste. As per the Swachhata Sandesh Newsletter released by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs in January 2020, 1,47,613 metric tonnes of solid waste is generated per day, from 84,475 wards across India. The existing process for collection, transportation and disposal, as part of municipal solid waste management, is under undue stress. Thus, improper solid waste disposal poses a great risk to public health.
Rice is among the top three crops produced in Malaysia, and it is the staple food for the majority of the population. According to estimates, the adult population consumes 2.5 plates of white rice on average every day. In a year, the average consumption of a Malaysian resident is approximately 82.3 kg of rice.
Green cleaning is the future, and thus people are fast embracing safe and eco-friendly solutions for washroom cleaning and other applications in commercial spaces. Enzyme based cleaners have emerged as one of the best green cleaning solutions. These are now preferred due to their various advantages over traditional chemical-based cleaners.
Portable toilets have the potential to revolutionize the sanitation and hygiene standards in the construction industry. In India, workers typically spend 8 to 9 hours at construction sites, which are sometimes located at far off places or the outskirts of the city. There are other concerns like open defecation practice, which is still prevalent. It is also important to maintain cleanliness and promote hygiene among workers, as part of the Swachh Bharat initiative by the government of India.
The petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries which contributes significantly to the growth of world economies. However, different refinery activities such as equipment cooling and desalting which involves water results in the generation of effluents. Also, an extensive amount of hazardous waste consisting of organic and inorganic compounds are left behind, which needs treatment.
Today, fertilizers are considered as an integral part of modern agriculture. One of the reasons why fertilizers are extensively used is because they provide important nutrients for better plant growth and crop productivity. However, the overuse of fertilizers has deeply affected the environment in myriad ways. It also threatens to impact human health.
Bangladesh, has a chiefly an agrarian economy where rice is the dominant crop. The climatic condition in Bangladesh also enables the year-round production of rice. Thus, rice is an integral part of the dietary culture and the main source of nutrition for the people. Also, rice production is the major source of income in rural areas.